Late emergence of A594V and L595W mutations related to ganciclovir resistance in a patient with HCMV retinitis and long-term HIV progression
The emergence of ganciclovir (GCV) resistance during the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a serious clinical challenge, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this case report, we describe the emergence of two consecutive mutations (A594V and L595W) related to GCV resistance in a patient with HCMV retinitis and long-term HIV progression after approximately 240 days of GCV use. Following the diagnosis of retinitis, the introduction of GCV did not result in viral load reduction. The detected mutations appeared late in the treatment, and we propose that other factors (high initial HCMV load, previous GCV exposure, low CD4+ cell count), in addition to the presence of resistance mutations, may have contributed to the treatment failure of HCMV infection in this patient.