High burn-up operation and MOX burning in LWR; Effects of burn-up and extended cooling period of spent fuel on vitrification and disposal
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Looking ahead to final disposal of high-level radioactive waste arising from further utilization of nuclear energy, the effects of high burn-up of light-water reactors (LWR) with UO2 and MOX fuel and extended cooling period of spent fuel on waste management and disposal were discussed. It was assumed that the waste loading of waste glass is restricted by three factors: heat generation rate, MoO3 content, and platinum group metal content. As a result of evaluation for effects of extended cooling period, the waste loading of waste glass from both UO2 and MOX spent fuel could be increased in the current vitrification technology. For the storage of waste glass from MOX spent fuel with higher waste loading, however, those waste glass require long storage period prior to geological disposal because decay heat of 241Am contributes significantly. Therefore, the evaluation of effects of Am separation on the storage period was performed. Furthermore, heat transfer calculation was carried out in order to evaluate the temperature of buffer material in a geological repository. The results showed, 70 to 90% of Am separation is sufficiently effective in terms of thermal feasibility of a repository.