Detailed patient data.
It is shown that the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was associated with survival benefit in an elderly population. We aimed to analyze the feasibility and efficacy of alternate-day S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine, for adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients with completely resected pathological stage IA (tumor diameter > 2 cm) to IIIA (UICC TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, 7th edition) NSCLC.
Elderly patients were randomly assigned to receive adjuvant chemotherapy for one year consisting of either alternate-day oral administration of S-1 (80 mg/m2/day) for 4 days a week (Arm A) or a daily oral administration of S-1 (80 mg/m2/day) for 14 consecutive days followed by 7-day rest (Arm B). The primary endpoint was feasibility (treatment completion rate), which was defined as the proportion of patients who completed the allocated intervention for 6 months with a relative dose intensity (RDI) of 70% or more.
We enrolled 101 patients in which 97 patients received S-1 treatment. The treatment completion rate at 6 months was 69.4% in Arm A and 64.6% in Arm B (p = 0.67). Treatment completion rate in Arm B tended to be lower compared to Arm A, as the treatment period becomes longer (at 9 and 12 months). RDI of S-1 at 12 months and completion of S-1 administration without dose reduction or postponement at 12 months was significantly better in Arm A than in Arm B (p = 0.026 and p < 0.001, respectively). Among adverse events, anorexia, skin symptoms and lacrimation of any grade were significantly more frequent in Arm B compared with Arm A (p = 0.0036, 0.023 and 0.031, respectively). The 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 56.9% and 65.7% for Arm A and B, respectively (p = 0.22). The 5-year overall survival rates were 68.6% and 82.0% for Arm A and B, respectively (p = 0.11).
Although several adverse effects were less frequent in Arm A, both alternate-day and daily oral administrations of S-1 were demonstrated to be feasible in elderly patients with completely resected NSCLC.
Unique ID issued by UMIN: UMIN000007819 (Date of registration: Apr 25, 2012) https://center6.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000009128. Trial ID issued by jRCT: jRCTs061180089 (Date of registration: Mar 22, 2019, for a shift toward a “specified clinical trial” based on Clinical Trials Act in Japan) https://jrct.niph.go.jp/en-latest-detail/jRCTs061180089.