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Conformational and Configurational Analysis in the Study and Synthesis of Chlorinated Natural Products

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posted on 04.11.2009, 00:00 by Christian Nilewski, Roger W. Geisser, Marc-Olivier Ebert, Erick M. Carreira
The first detailed study of the J-based configuration analysis method in chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorohydrins is presented along with the development of a spectroscopic database that facilitates configurational assignment of these structures. The data are generated through the investigation of model structures in solution by NMR spectroscopic methods and in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. Consequently, complete conformational analysis of trichlorinated hexane-1,2- and -1,3-diols is presented. The investigations in chlorinated systems for the first time attest to the relevance, reliability, and accuracy of the spectroscopic approach in configurational assignment, which had been otherwise developed for polyketides. During the synthesis of the various molecules that constitute the database and exemplify the various possible stereochemical patterns, a number of observations were made that underscore the unique features of these chlorinated systems. Thus, certain diastereomeric subclasses of 4,5-dichloro-2,3-epoxyhexane-1-ols display a propensity to undergo ring-opening reactions at C-3 with concomitant inversion of configuration at the neighboring C−Cl at C4, implicating the intermediacy of chloronium ions. The observations of positional and stereochemical scrambling in polychlorinated hydrocarbons underscore the necessity of a spectroscopic database that enables rapid, reliable configurational assignment of chlorinated natural products and intermediates en route to these.