Coffea canephora breeding: estimated and achieved gains from selection in the Western Amazon, Brazil
ABSTRACT: Gain from selection is an important criterion in quantifying the efficiency of breeding programs. This study quantified the selection gain estimated under experimental conditions and realized gain achieved in the field, seeking to interpret the efficiency of the Coffea canephora selection. For that purpose, we considered experiments that began in 2004 with directed hybridizations to obtain new hybrid progenies. From a breeding population composed of 288 hybrid individuals, 12 genotypes were selected in experimental conditions from 2005 to 2012, with amplitude in the estimated gains from 127.70 to−19.19%. Those genotypes were evaluated from 2012 to 2018 in clonal tests in four environments of the Western Amazon. The environment that exhibited the greatest correlation between the predicted genetic values and the realized genetic gain observed in the field was the environment of Ouro Preto do Oeste, RO (0.67), the location in which the plants were selected, followed by the environments of Alta FlorestaD´Oeste, RO (0.44), Rio Branco, AC (0.43), and Porto Velho, RO (0.37).Experimental conditions showed that the effect due to dominance deviations was approximately three times greater than the additive effect. Nine clones exhibited higher genetic gains in the experimental conditions and at field, and two clones exhibited lower estimated gains and lower field performance.The clone G17-P7 exhibited high genetic gain under experimental conditions and low field performance. The selection in experimental conditions was positively correlated with plant performance in the field (r=0.55), which allows reduction of the original breeding population to a set of more promising clones to be grown in multiple environments, optimizing time and resources.