Characterisation of plasmid-mediated rmtB-1 in Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates from São Paulo, Brazil
OBJECTIVES The emergence of 16S rRNA methyltranferases (16 RMTAses) has jeopardised the clinical use of aminoglycosides. RmtB is one of the most frequently reported in Gram-negatives worldwide. In this study, we aimed to estimate the frequency of 16S RMTAses encoding genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in a three-month period from a tertiary Brazilian hospital. METHODS All Gram-negatives classified as resistant to amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin by agar screening were selected for analysis. The presence of 16SRMTases encoding genes was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antimicrobial susceptible profile was determined by broth microdilution. The genetic relationship among these isolates was accessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Selected RmtB-producing isolates were characterised by whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis. RESULTS Twenty-two of 1,052 (2.1%) Enterobacteriaceae were detected as producers of RmtB-1 [Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 21) and Proteus mirabilis (n = 1)]. blaKPC-2 was identified among 20 RmtB-1-producing K. pneumoniae isolates that exhibited an identical PFGE and MLST (ST258) patterns. Two K. pneumoniae isolates, the A64216 (not harboring bla KPC-2), A64477 (harboring bla KPC-2) and one P. mirabilis isolate (A64421) were selected for WGS. rmtB-1 and bla KPC-2 genes were carried by distinct plasmids. While a plasmid belonging to the IncFIIk group harbored rmtB-1 in K. pneumoniae, this gene was carried by a non-typable plasmid in P. mirabilis. In the three analysed plasmids, rmtB-1 was inserted on a transposon, downstream a Tn2. CONCLUSION Our findings suggested that the rmtB-1 was harbored by plasmids distinct from those previously reported in Bolivia and China. It suggests that multiple mobilization events might have occurred in South America.