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A Systematic Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Crystalline State of Six Chloronitrobenzenes

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posted on 2008-01-02, 00:00 authored by Sarah A. Barnett, Andrea Johnston, Alastair J. Florence, Sarah L. Price, Derek A. Tocher
Experimental and computational searches for the crystal structures of the five commercially available isomers of dichloronitrobenzene and 3,4-dinitrochlorobenzene were performed to assess the relationship between functional group interactions and steric requirements in determining the solid forms. Experimentally, this resulted in the first crystal structure determination of 2,4-dichloronitrobenzene, two solvates of 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene and one of 3,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. Additionally, low temperature redeterminations of the crystal structures were obtained for 2,5-dichloronitrobenzene, 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, and both the β- and γ-forms of 3,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. The searches for energetically feasible structures of each of these compounds showed a wide variety of distributions leading to varying degrees of clarity of prediction of the solid state behavior. These range from 2,3-dichloronitrobenzene, which only adopts the crystal structure that was clearly the most thermodynamically stable of all five isomers, through complex systems, which show a range of low energy minima indicating possible polymorphism and solvate formation, to 2,4-dichloronitrobenzene, which can conformationally distort and adopts a complicated Z′ = 2 crystal structure.

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