1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Treatment Delays Cellular Aging in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells while Maintaining Their Multipotent Capacity
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) was reported to induce premature organismal aging in fibroblast growth factor-23 (Fgf23) and klotho deficient mice, which is of main interest as 1,25D3 supplementation of its precursor cholecalciferol is used in basic osteoporosis treatment. We wanted to know if 1,25D3 is able to modulate aging processes on a cellular level in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Effects of 100 nM 1,25D3 on hMSC were analyzed by cell proliferation and apoptosis assay, β-galactosidase staining, VDR and surface marker immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR of 1,25D3-responsive, quiescence- and replicative senescence-associated genes. 1,25D3 treatment significantly inhibited hMSC proliferation and apoptosis after 72 h and delayed the development of replicative senescence in long-term cultures according to β-galactosidase staining and P16 expression. Cell morphology changed from a fibroblast like appearance to broad and rounded shapes. Long term treatment did not induce lineage commitment in terms of osteogenic pathways but maintained their clonogenic capacity, their surface marker characteristics (expression of CD73, CD90, CD105) and their multipotency to develop towards the chondrogenic, adipogenic and osteogenic pathways. In conclusion, 1,25D3 delays replicative senescence in primary hMSC while the pro-aging effects seen in mouse models might mainly be due to elevated systemic phosphate levels, which propagate organismal aging.