Ensuring radiation safety at the lunar base
conference contributionposted on 06.05.2021, 07:19 by Dmitry Simankov
7th International Conference "Aviation and Cosmonautics-2008". Abstracts. p.134
The work on the lunar base was carried out for a long time and at the moment there is an international interest in the development of this satellite of the Earth. However, the last decade has been the focus of most of the attention on Mars. In the matter of radiation safety for a flight to Mars and the design of a base on the Moon, there is a similar range of tasks. Of course, each project has its own characteristics. So for the lunar base, it is necessary to establish sources of radiation. They are GKI, own radiation, local relief. Therefore, good protection against this primary radiation in the form of dynamic and static barriers is needed. Inside the station, another problem arises - this is secondary radiation, which will have to be mainly dealt with by means of technical and biochemical methods aimed mainly at increasing the adaptive capabilities of the organism. So, when the human body absorbs 300 Gy, nausea and vomiting occurs. Individual and complex dosimetry instruments are important assistants in the assessment of radiation. They can also be used to estimate the dose on board the ship or base, as well as on equipment that may fail, as well as the dose received by the astronaut himself. Special protection is created for the systems and the astronaut.
In this regard, scientific directions in general and individual dosimetry, information transformation in cells, fundamental chemistry and physics are actively developing. An important result can be noted the creation and implementation of phantoms imitating human organs on board the spacecraft, individual dosimeters with a wide range of energies and the ability to integrally read discrete energy values of incoming energy, both in activity peaks and ordinary ones.
In general, conceptual issues for ensuring radiation safety at the proposed lunar base are considered. The relevance of this work lies in the fact that new issues of protection and control are considered, as well as the latest data on the interaction of cosmic ionizing radiation with inanimate and living matter. A description is given of what physiological effect radiation has on a person in space (on various organs and systems). Protection from radiation using natural soil is proposed and analyzed from a physical and mathematical point of view. The most promising directions for studying radiation in space are indicated. In general, the work is a generalized material on this topic. In particular, some information may be useful for specialists involved in preparing a flight to the red planet.
In our opinion, knowledge is not enough to build a lunar database. First of all, it is necessary to adapt the body to such radiation loads, the next range of tasks will be reduced to technical means of protecting the base or spacecraft from primary radiation. The science of biophysics will provide tremendous help in solving the problem of the effect of radiation on living matter, theoretical physics is necessary for understanding the interaction of energy falling on matter with it. We need fundamentally new and non-standard solutions. The future depends on our teamwork.