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Crusaders of the lost archipelago : the changing relationships between environmental NGOs and government in Japan
chapterposted on 06.12.2017, 00:00 by Michael Danaher
Since the early 1970s, an increasing number of environmental groups have emerged as significant agents of change in the politics of global environmental management. This phenomenon reflects the increasing complexity of environmental issues but the reality is that governments and environmental groups have not always been able to work well together. The importance of a cooperative working relationship between governments and enviromnental non-governmental organisations (NGOs) was highlighted by Agenda 21 of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio De Janeiro. Chapter 27 of Agenda 21 (Strengthening The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations: Partners For Sustainable Development) provided clear justification for the involvement ofNGOs (not only environmental) in national decision and policy-making mechanisms. It emphasised that NGO involvement constituted a bottom-up source of strength, which should be harnessed' by governments and other groups to bring about sustainable development.