Antitumor effect of Cymbopogon densiflorus (Linneu) essential oil in bladder cancer cells

The aim of this study was to analyse the antitumor effect of the Cymbopogon densiflorus essential oil in silico and in vitro on bladder cancer cells RT4 and T24, with different TP53 status. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and the gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry was used for characterisation. In silico analysis was carried out by Pass online software. Cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and wound healing assays were performed. Five major compounds were identified. In silico analysis showed that major compounds present high potential for antitumor activities. The treatment with C. densiflorus essential oil reduced cell viability of bladder cancer cells. Only in wild-type cells, the increase of apoptosis rates and the decrease of cell migration were observed. In conclusion, the C. densiflorus essential oil presents antitumor effects on TP53 wild-type and mutated bladder cancer cells, however, the mechanism of action is TP53 status-dependent.