Phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of Anethum graveolens L. essential oil
This study reports the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Anethum graveolens essential oil and its main compounds. The essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analysed by using GC/MS. α-Phellandrene (19.12%), limonene (26.34%), dill ether (15.23%), sabinene (11.34%), α-pinene (2%), n-tetracosane (1.54%), neophytadiene (1.43%), n-docosane (1.04), n-tricosane (1%), n-nonadecane (1%), n-eicosane (0.78%), n-heneicosane (0.67%), β-myrcene (0.23%) and α-tujene (0.21%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. A. graveolens oil exhibit a higher activity in each antioxidant system with a special attention for β-carotene bleaching test (IC50: 15.3 μg/mL) and reducing power (EC50: 11.24 μg/mL). The TLC-bioautography screening and fractionation resulted in the separation of the main antioxidant compounds, which were identified as limonene (45%) and sabinene (32%). The essential oil and its main compounds exhibited a potent NO-scavenging effect and inhibited the expression of inducible NO synthase.