Total activity and abundance (density) in beech-dominated forest, oak forest, and forest-steppe ecotone.

Ant activity was sampled by pitfall traps (pit; number of ants captured per 9 traps and 15 days of sampling) and density was sampled by the leaf litter sifting (sift; number of ants sampled from surface of 9 m2). The number of plots where each species was present is indicated by superscript representing the number of plots with species present.

Total activity and abundance (density) in beech-dominated forest, oak forest, and forest-steppe ecotone.