The properties of the voltage-memory trace.

(A–D)The changing response of the memory trace across multiple spikes,  = 0.2. (A) Voltage trace of the fractional model stimulated with nA. Spikes have been clipped to emphasize the sub-threshold dynamics. (B) for the data in A. (C) The memory trace for the data in A. (D) Overlapped memory traces for different inter-spike intervals during the same simulation. (E–G) The dynamics of the weight of the voltage-memory trace and the fractional coefficient depend on the fractional exponent . (E) When decreases the weights increase. (F) The value of the weight as a function of and time. (G) The fractional coefficient of the Markov process increases when is decreased.