TLR4 deficiency protected diabetic kidneys from interstitial fibrosis and tubular injury.

(A) Significant interstitial collagen accumulation was evident in WT but not TLR4−/− mice with diabetes at 12 and 24 weeks. (B) Illustration of representative sections of the histological changes on PSR staining for collagen. (C) Immunohistochemical staining showed upregulation of α-SMA in WT, but not TLR4−/− mice, with diabetes as compared to non-diabetic controls at week 24. (D) Significant upregulation of KIM-1 was apparent in WT mice with diabetes, but attenuated in TLR4−/− diabetic kidneys. The data are present as the means ± SEM; * p<0.05; ** p<0.01; *** p<0.001. The number of animals per group was described in Figure 1.