TLR4−/− and MyD88−/− mice show increased severity of infection with C. difficile infection.

Mice were pre-treated with antibiotics and infected with C. difficile (see materials and methods). (A) Change in body weight of groups of mice following infection; 6–8 mice per group, data are expressed as mean ± SEM. (B) CFUs in the cecum on day 3 of infection; 3–4 mice per group, data are expressed as mean ± SEM. (C) Representative hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of the cecum from uninfected (day 0) mice and from animals 3 and 7 post-infected. Original magnification ×200, scale bar 50 µM. (D) Mean histology scores (range 0–3) of sections of the cecum before (day 0) and 3 and 7 days post-infection. Statistical differences between groups was determined by ANOVA, * p<0.05; ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001.

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