TLR4<sup>−/−</sup> and MyD88<sup>−/−</sup> mice show increased severity of infection with <i>C. difficile</i> infection.

<p>Mice were pre-treated with antibiotics and infected with <i>C. difficile</i> (see <a href="http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002076#s2" target="_blank">materials and methods</a>). (A) Change in body weight of groups of mice following infection; 6–8 mice per group, data are expressed as mean ± SEM. (B) CFUs in the cecum on day 3 of infection; 3–4 mice per group, data are expressed as mean ± SEM. (C) Representative hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of the cecum from uninfected (day 0) mice and from animals 3 and 7 post-infected. Original magnification ×200, scale bar 50 µM. (D) Mean histology scores (range 0–3) of sections of the cecum before (day 0) and 3 and 7 days post-infection. Statistical differences between groups was determined by ANOVA, * <i>p</i><0.05; ** <i>p</i><0.01, *** <i>p</i><0.001.</p>

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