Stimulus-response curves for a 3-unit chain.

Stimulus-response curves for a 3-unit chain involving only single phosphorylation (A) or with double phosphorylation in units 2 and 3, representing the MAPK cascade (B). The parameters are those indicated in Table 1. The responses were obtained by both the mechanistic and the reduced mechanistic descriptions, which are in perfect agreement. The input stimulus is given by E1T , the total amount of kinase for the first unit. y1*, y2*, and y3* are plotted with black, blue, and red filled lines, respectively. GK-like model predictions are also included (dotted lines). The Hill coefficients characterizing each curve are listed in the legend.