Stimuli and the four speaker-listener groups in the current study.

(A) An example stimulus. Visual (upper panel) and auditory (lower panel) speech cues of the sentence “The girl loved the sweet coffee” produced by a native American English speaker and a native Korean speaker. (B) The four speaker-listener groups. E-E: English sentences were produced by a native American English speaker, and then presented to a group of native American English listeners. E-K: English sentences were produced by a native American English speaker, and then presented to a group of native Korean listeners. K-E: English sentences were produced by a native Korean speaker, and then presented to a group of native American English listeners. K-K: English sentences were produced by a native Korean speaker, and then presented to a group of native Korean listeners.