Rapamycin attenuates inflammatory responses in obstructed kidneys.

<p>A–B: Immunoflurescent staining (A) and quantitative assessment (B) of F4/80+ macrophages in kidney sections from UUO mouse models. anti-F4/80 (green) was used to label macrophages in kidney tissues, costaining with DAPI (blue). Scale bar: 20 µm. ** P<0.01 vs. vehicle treated groups. n = 5 animals in each group. C–D: Immunohistochemical staining (C) and quantitative assessment (D) of CD3+ T cells in kidney sections from UUO mice. anti-CD3 was used to label T cells in the kidneys, counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Representative areas were magnified in the inserted images(C). Scale bar: 50 µm. *P<0.05 vs. vehicle treated groups. n = 5 animals in each group. E–F. Analysis of proinflammatory (E) and fibrotic (F) profiles of kidney tissues from UUO models, using quantitative realtime-PCR. IL-1β, TNF-α, CXCL-1 and MCP-1 were selected as pro-inflammatory chemokines for detection (E). **P<0.01, vs control group (sham operation); <sup>##</sup>P<0.01, rapamycin vs. vehicle treated groups; <sup>§§</sup>P<0.01 vs U1d-vehicle group; <sup>¶¶</sup>P<0.01 vs U3d-vehicle group. n = 5 animals in each group. TGF-β and CTGF were selected as fibrotic cytokines for detection (F). *P<0.05, **P<0.01, vs control group (sham operation); <sup>#</sup>P<0.05, <sup>##</sup>P<0.01 rapamycin vs vehicle-treated group. NS no significance, n = 5 animals in each group. Error bars represent S.E.</p>