Plasma (A,B) and urine (C,D) levels of soluble α-klotho in normal participants (<i>n</i> = 25) and patients with type 2 diabetes (<i>n</i> = 147).

<p>Plasma and urine α-klotho levels were higher in diabetes patients with relatively preserved renal function than the non-diabetic controls (A,C). The diabetes patients were categorized into 3 groups according to urine ACR: ACR <30 mg/g creatinine (normoalbuminuria group, <i>n</i> = 75), ACR 30–299 mg/g creatinine (microalbuminuria group, <i>n</i> = 42), and ACR ≥300 mg/g creatinine (macroalbuminuria group, <i>n</i> = 30). Plasma α-klotho levels decreased in proportion to urinary albumin excretion, although urinary α-klotho levels were stable with increasing urinary albumin excretion (B,D). Data of non-diabetic control are expressed as a shaded area for the reference (B, D). Data are presented as geometric means and 95% CIs as an error bar plot. <i>P</i>-values calculated using the log-transformed values are shown in the graph. normo; normoalbuminuria, micro; microalbuminuria, macro; macroalbuminuria.</p>