Pathological examination.

<p>Surgical orthotopic implantation (Group 3) resulted in localized infiltrating tumors, whereas percutaneous orthotopic injection (Group 2) and transpleural orthotopic injection (group 4) resulted in localized rounded nodules. Histological examination revealed a high proportion of undifferentiated carcinoma in group 1-SC tumor, but a low proportion in the 3 experimental groups. Furthermore, the 3 experimental groups were associated with more capsule rupture and vascular emboli than group 1-SC.</p>

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