Optimal conditions for transformation.

<p>(a) effect of perpendicular force for spreading friction where the plate broken at 9 kgf led to the large error, (b) influence of pre-treatment processes and time. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation from three independent experiments. A one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s multiple comparisons was performed for comparison with the difference between treatment and control groups. Differences were considered statistically significant at <i>p</i><0.05.</p>