Nile Delta sediment accretion status and comparison with other regional proxies.

(A) Location of the study area. (B) Holocene insolation at 30° N for June–July-August [68]. (C) On the right axis: radiocarbon dates from early and mid-Holocene occupation sites in the Eastern Sahara [48]. The solid black line denotes a three-point moving average. On the left axis: estimates for the population of the Nile valley in Egypt [29]. These are represented by the thin black line. (D) Holocene oxygen isotope record from the Arabian peninsula [25]. (E) Strontium isotope record from Manzala lagoon, eastern Nile Delta [69]. (F) North African lake levels [70,71]. (G) Reconstruction of changes in Nile runoff using the EM1/(EM2+EM3) ratio (record from [28]). (H) Nile prodelta sedimentation rates for the Holocene [26]. (I) Nile Delta accretionary status.