Neurons as functionally complete logic gates.
The circuit diagrams show that neurons with excitatory and inhibitory inputs and neurons that have continuously high outputs form a functionally complete set, meaning any logic circuit can be constructed with them. The label on each neuron represents its response. The maximum and minimum possible responses 1 and 0 can stand for the logical values true and false, making the network outputs logical functions of the inputs. The diagrams show logic gates for (A) X AND NOT Y, (B) X AND Y, and (C, D) NOT X. Arrows indicate excitatory input; blocks indicate inhibitory input. Spontaneously active neurons are square. To illustrate example inputs and outputs, active neurons are colored. Inactive inhibitory cells are shaded.