<i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> Genotypes Determined by Spoligotyping to Be Circulating in Colombia between 1999 and 2012 and Their Possible Associations with Transmission and Susceptibility to First-Line Drugs

<div><p>Introduction</p><p>Tuberculosis (TB) remains a primary public health problem worldwide. The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) cases has increased in recent years in Colombia. Knowledge of <i>M</i>. <i>tuberculosis</i> genotypes defined by spoligotyping can help determine the circulation of genotypes that must be controlled to prevent the spread of TB.</p><p>Objective</p><p>To describe the genotypes of <i>M</i>. <i>tuberculosis</i> using spoligotyping in resistant and drug-sensitive isolates and their possible associations with susceptibility to first-line drugs.</p><p>Methods</p><p>An analytical observational study was conducted that included 741 isolates of <i>M</i>. <i>tuberculosis</i> from patients. The isolates originated from 31 departments and were obtained by systematic surveillance between 1999 and 2012.</p><p>Results</p><p>In total 61.94% of the isolates were resistant to 1 or more drugs, and 147 isolates were MDR. In total, 170 genotypes were found in the population structure of Colombian <i>M</i>. <i>tuberculosis</i> isolates. The isolates were mainly represented by four families: LAM (39.9%), Haarlem (19%), Orphan (17%) and T (9%). The SIT42 (LAM 9) was the most common genotype and contained 24.7% of the isolates, followed by the genotypes SIT62 (Haarlem1), SIT53 (T1), and SIT50 (H3). A high clustering of isolates was evident with 79.8% of the isolates classified into 32 groups. The Beijing family was associated with resistant isolates, whereas the Haarlem and T families were associated with sensitive isolates. The Haarlem family was also associated with grouped isolates (p = 0.031).</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>A high proportion (approximately 80%) of isolates was found in clusters; these clusters were not associated with resistance to first-line drugs. The Beijing family was associated with drug resistance, whereas the T and Haarlem families were associated with susceptibility in the Colombian isolates studied.</p></div>