Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotypes Determined by Spoligotyping to Be Circulating in Colombia between 1999 and 2012 and Their Possible Associations with Transmission and Susceptibility to First-Line Drugs

Introduction

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a primary public health problem worldwide. The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) cases has increased in recent years in Colombia. Knowledge of M. tuberculosis genotypes defined by spoligotyping can help determine the circulation of genotypes that must be controlled to prevent the spread of TB.

Objective

To describe the genotypes of M. tuberculosis using spoligotyping in resistant and drug-sensitive isolates and their possible associations with susceptibility to first-line drugs.

Methods

An analytical observational study was conducted that included 741 isolates of M. tuberculosis from patients. The isolates originated from 31 departments and were obtained by systematic surveillance between 1999 and 2012.

Results

In total 61.94% of the isolates were resistant to 1 or more drugs, and 147 isolates were MDR. In total, 170 genotypes were found in the population structure of Colombian M. tuberculosis isolates. The isolates were mainly represented by four families: LAM (39.9%), Haarlem (19%), Orphan (17%) and T (9%). The SIT42 (LAM 9) was the most common genotype and contained 24.7% of the isolates, followed by the genotypes SIT62 (Haarlem1), SIT53 (T1), and SIT50 (H3). A high clustering of isolates was evident with 79.8% of the isolates classified into 32 groups. The Beijing family was associated with resistant isolates, whereas the Haarlem and T families were associated with sensitive isolates. The Haarlem family was also associated with grouped isolates (p = 0.031).

Conclusions

A high proportion (approximately 80%) of isolates was found in clusters; these clusters were not associated with resistance to first-line drugs. The Beijing family was associated with drug resistance, whereas the T and Haarlem families were associated with susceptibility in the Colombian isolates studied.