Modulation of PKC and ERK activity in adult S. mansoni induces worm uncoupling, suppresses egg output, and causes male worms to detach.

Adult worm pairs were incubated in increasing concentrations of U0126, GF109203X, or 1 µM PMA and movies captured at various time points over 96 h and imported into Image J. The effects of these compounds on (A, B) pairing, (C, D) egg release by paired worms (uncoupled worms were not included), and (E, F) male adult worm detachment from the culture plate were then determined against vehicle controls (which in A–D were assigned a value of 100% and are shown as the dotted line). Mean values (± SEM) shown represent those from four independent experiments, each of which contained a minimum of six adult worm pairs. *p≤0.05, **p≤0.01, and ***p≤0.001 (ANOVA).