Modulation of PKC and ERK activity in adult S. mansoni affects worm movement.

Adult worm pairs were incubated with increasing concentrations of U0126, GF109203X, or 1 µM PMA and movies captured at various time points over 96 h and imported into Image J. Movies were then analyzed to determine the speed of movement (velocity, mm/s) that the posterior tip of each worm travelled in 10 s when (A, B) coupled. In some cases worms uncoupled as a consequence of treatment (as shown in Figure 8A, B). When this was the case, the speed of movement of the uncoupled (C, D) single male or (E, F) female worms was determined for their respective treatments for the remainder of the assay; note that no vehicle control exists when worms had separated because the control worms remained paired. Mean values (± SEM) shown represent those from four independent experiments each of which contained a minimum of six adult worm pairs; the actual numbers of worms in each analysis is, however, dependent upon the uncoupling effect of the individual treatment (shown in Figures 8A, B). *p≤0.05, **p≤0.01, and ***p≤0.001 (ANOVA).