Lung histopathological changes after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR).

Lungs from the HSR group rats treated with or without biliverdin (BV) administration were excised 12 h after resuscitation and subjected to histological analysis. (A) Representative images from five independent experiments (hematoxylin–eosin staining, original magnification ×200, scale bar  = 100 µm). (B) The severity of histopathological changes in the lungs was graded for congestion, edema, inflammation, and hemorrhage. A total of 10 areas of lung parenchyma from each rat were graded as 0 (no findings or normal), 1 (mild), 2 (moderate), or 3 (severe) for each of the four parameters. (C) The sum of histopathological scores for the four parameters were calculated (n = 5 per group). Data are presented as means ± standard deviation and were statistically evaluated using analysis of variance followed by Tukey–Kramer honestly significant difference test. *p<0.01 vs. vehicle/sham; p<0.01 vs. BV/sham; #p<0.01 vs. vehicle/HSR. Vehicle/sham, vehicle-administered animals subjected to sham surgery; BV/sham, BV-administered animals subjected to sham surgery; vehicle/HSR, vehicle-administered animals subjected to HSR; BV/HSR, BV-administered animals subjected to HSR.