Incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICER) of vaccinating pre-adolescent girls and boys compared to vaccinating pre-adolescent girls only.

Shaded area represents the broad range of willingness-to-pay thresholds ($30,000–$100,000 per QALY gained) accepted across developed countries. Dotted line represents a threshold often cited in Norway ($83,000 per QALY gained).16 Cost per dose excludes the administration cost (≈$14 per dose).