Impact of parameter assumptions on the cost-effectiveness of including boys in a vaccination program against human papillomavirus (HPV) (including all HPV-16,-18,-6,-11 related conditions).

<p>QALY: Quality-adjusted life year.</p>a<p>All costs are expressed in 2010 US dollars (1US$ = NOK6.05) and rounded to the nearest $10,</p>b<p>Compared to no vaccination,</p>c<p>The 2012 2-dose coverage for girls in Norway is 79%, this scenario assumes boys achieve the same 2-dose coverage and vaccine efficacy is equal to 3-doses.</p>d<p>Optimistic scenario analysis: Upper bound of HPV-16, -18 attributable fraction and upper bound of treatment cost,</p>e<p>Pessimistic scenario analysis: Lower bound of HPV-16, -18 attributable fraction and lower bound of treatment costs,</p>f<p>Compared to girls-only vaccination.</p>g<p>Assumes HPV vaccination requires 3 doses and girls achieve a similar coverage as the MMR vaccine (administered age 12–13 years in Norway). Increasing coverage among girls to 90% was more beneficial and less costly than (i.e., dominated) adding boys with 71% coverage.</p>