Impact of parameter assumptions on the cost-effectiveness of including boys in a vaccination program against human papillomavirus (HPV) (including all HPV-16,-18,-6,-11 related conditions).

QALY: Quality-adjusted life year.


All costs are expressed in 2010 US dollars (1US$ = NOK6.05) and rounded to the nearest $10,


Compared to no vaccination,


The 2012 2-dose coverage for girls in Norway is 79%, this scenario assumes boys achieve the same 2-dose coverage and vaccine efficacy is equal to 3-doses.


Optimistic scenario analysis: Upper bound of HPV-16, -18 attributable fraction and upper bound of treatment cost,


Pessimistic scenario analysis: Lower bound of HPV-16, -18 attributable fraction and lower bound of treatment costs,


Compared to girls-only vaccination.


Assumes HPV vaccination requires 3 doses and girls achieve a similar coverage as the MMR vaccine (administered age 12–13 years in Norway). Increasing coverage among girls to 90% was more beneficial and less costly than (i.e., dominated) adding boys with 71% coverage.