Identification of altered molecules in brain tissues from schizophrenia and control subjects using multiplex immunoassay analysis.

<p>Columns 3–4 show p values and fold change (FC) values between schizophrenia and control groups by ANCOVA, including age, brain pH, PMI and haemoglobin level as covariates.</p>*<p>Indicates loss of significance after the adjustment for haemoglobin level,</p>∧<p>indicates significance achieved only after adjustment for haemoglobin level. The list of altered brain analytes was compared with published microarray mRNA transcript data (column 5 shows the Affymetrix probes used; for cortisol, the probe for the associated NR3C receptor was used; for genes with more than one probe, only the most significant probe is shown). Columns 6–9 show p values and fold changes for targeted transcripts in brain tissue (BA9; <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046368#pone.0046368-Prabakaran1" target="_blank">[10]</a>and cerebral microvascular endothelial cells <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046368#pone.0046368-Harris1" target="_blank">[11]</a> from the same individuals used in this study (only those values with p<0.05 are shown). Columns 11 shows fold changes of the corresponding analytes in serum from 5 living cohorts of recent onset schizophrenia patients (n = 250) and control subjects (n = 230) <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046368#pone.0046368-Schwarz1" target="_blank">[3]</a>. Mean fold change over all significant cohorts is shown.</p>+<p>indicates an inconsistent fold change between centres. Column 10 indicates how many cohorts the analyte was significant in. Bold text indicates overlap between the brain analytes, mRNA transcripts or serum analytes. Reproducibility for serum analytes was only considered where significance occurred in at least 2 cohorts. TIMP-1 = tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, VCAM-1 = vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, PARC = pulmonary activation-regulated chemokine, VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor, MIP-1β = macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta.</p>