Hemorrhagic shock prior to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) pneumonia markedly decreases cytokine mRNA levels in total dendritic cells (DCs).

Four groups of mice were studied: sham-treated (S group), hemorrhaged mice (H group), MSSA-induced pneumonia (P group), and hemorrhage before MSSA-induced pneumonia (HP group). Mice were sacrificed 6 hours after MSSA injection. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of (A) TNF-α, (B) IFN-β, (C) IL-12p40 was performed. In each group, mRNA was extracted from CD11c cells positively selected from cell suspension obtained from enzymatic spleen digestion. Data are representative of three independent experiments (each group, n = 6). Boxes represent median (interquartile range). & P<0.05 versus all others, $ P<0.05 versus S and H groups.