Geographic distributions of Parascolymia/Circophyllia (red dots) and tridacnines (blue squares,) in the Eocene, Oligocene to middle Miocene, and late Miocene to Holocene time slices.

Coral occurrences refer to Table 1 and tridacnine distributions are compiled from [26,69]. The red shaded areas indicate the recent distribution of Parascolymia vitiensis [7] and the red circles delimit biodiversity hotspots in the respective periods [10].