Experimental scheme.

<p>Young adult C57BL/6J male mice (8 weeks old) were first entrained to a 12∶12 LD photoperiodic cycle for two weeks with food and water available <i>ad libitum</i>. Then mice were randomly divided into three groups: food available <i>ad libitum</i> (AF), food available during the late day (ZT 6 to 11) (DF), and food available during the late night (ZT 18 to 23) (NF) with water available all the time. This time-restrictive feeding regimen was maintained either up to the end of each experiment or for 4 weeks and then returned to <i>ad libitum</i> feeding (<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044053#pone-0044053-g002" target="_blank">Figure 2</a> and <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044053#pone-0044053-g003" target="_blank">3</a>). Gray bar indicates major meal time of normal adult mouse (Figure S1A).</p>