Effects of the antifungal drugs myriocin, amphotericin B, and fluconazole on <i>Galleria mellonella</i> survival 24 and 48 h post-treatment.

<p>(A) Comparison of the survival rates of <i>G. mellonella</i> larvae following injection with PBS, or antifungal drugs (MYR, FLC, or AMPH) alone or in combination, or with <i>C. albicans</i> alone. The survival rate of the <i>Candida-</i>infected group was significantly lower than the PBS control group (*p<0.0001, n = 20) and also compared with all other groups. (B) Comparison of the survival rates of <i>G. mellonella</i> larvae following injection with PBS, or <i>C. albicans</i> alone, or the antifungal drug followed by <i>C. albicans</i>. Pre-treatment of larvae with MYR, or AMPH or FLC had significant impacts on survival rates when compared with CA group (*p<0.001 and **p = 0.003, n = 20). (C) Comparison of the survival rates of <i>G. mellonella</i> larvae following injection with PBS, or <i>C. albicans</i> alone or with MYR combined with either AMPH or FLC followed by <i>C. albicans</i>. Larvae from combined groups (MYR+AMPH+CA and MYR+FLC+CA) showed increased survival rates (§ p = 0.03,and p = 0.01, n = 20), respectively, when compared with MYR+CA group. (D) Comparison of the survival rates of <i>G. mellonella</i> larvae following injection with PBS, or <i>C. albicans</i> alone or with two different concentrations of MYR followed by <i>C. albicans</i>. Effect of MYR at higher concentration (0.5 µg/ml) decreased the survival rate when compared with CA group (*p<0.001, n = 20). PBS = injected buffer; CA = <i>Candida albicans</i>; MYR = myriocin; AMPH = amphotericin; FLC = fluconazole.</p>