Effects of propofol and ketamine anesthesia on dendritic protrusions in the somatosensory cortex in vivo.

(a) 3D volume rendering of confocal microscopy images of apical dendrites in control (left), propofol-treated (middle) and ketamine-treated (right) PND 15 mice. Scale bars: 1 µm. (b) Protrusion density of pyramidal neurons of the SCC of mice sacrificed at PND 15; 20 and 30 just after a 5 h-anesthesia with propofol (Propo) or ketamine (Keta) compared to control conditions (ctrl). (c) spine head width at PND 15 after 5 h-propofol (Propo) or Ketamine (Keta) anesthesia compared to control group. (b, c): n = 4 animals per group, 6945 spines; ***: P<0.001, **: P<0.01, *: P<0.05, two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post tests.