Effects of needle age, crown direction, and crown level on soluble sugars, starch, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and total nitrogen concentrations expressed on a dry mass basis, NSC-N ratio, δ13C, and SLA in Pinus koraiensis needles. F- and P-values are given (n  =  15).

Note (1) significant differences (P < 0.05) are highlighted in bold, and (2) statistical analyses using data expressed on a projected area basis and on a dry mass basis showed the same results and were then not repeated.