Effects of CYSKT on IR phosphorylation and GLUT-4 translocation.

<p>(A) Phospho-IR ELISA. Left panel: HepG2 cells were treated with 0.5 µM insulin or various amounts of CYSKT. Ten minutes later, cellular proteins were collected and the levels of phosphorylated IR were measured by ELISA. Values are mean ± SD (<i>n</i> = 6). Right panel: BALC/c mice were given orally with various amounts of CYSKT. One hour later, mice were sacrificed, and livers were collected for analysis. Values are mean ± SD (<i>n</i> = 6). *<i>p</i><0.05, ***<i>p</i><0.001, compared with mock. (B) Phospho-IR ELISA. Type 2 diabetic mice were administered orally 200 mg/kg CYSKT for 30 days. Proteins were extracted from intestines and muscles, and the levels of phosphorylated IR were measured by ELISA. Values are mean ± SD (<i>n</i> = 5). *<i>p</i><0.05, **<i>p</i><0.01, ***<i>p</i><0.001, compared with mock. (C) IHC. Type 2 diabetic mice were administered orally 200 mg/kg CYSKT for 30 consecutive days. Muscle tissues were collected and the sections were stained by IHC using antibody against GLUT-4 (100× and 400× magnification). Photos are representative images (<i>n</i> = 5).</p>