Effect of harsh discipline on emotional problems.
Bold numbers represent statistically significant (p<0.05) associations.‡
Z-score of the Child Behavior Checklist/1,5-5 measured at age 6.†
Z-score of the Berkeley Puppet Interview measured at age 6.$
Model adjusted for ethnicity of the child, gender of the child, age of the child, number of children in the household, household income, marital status, highest education of the parents, smoking during pregnancy, parental psychopathology and parental report of family functioning.□
Model additionally adjusted for baseline internalizing/externalizing behavior at age three.