Dynamic force spectroscopy.

(A) Rupture force distributions obtained at different retraction speeds for the homotypic E1-5 bond rupture. (B) Rupture force Ff as a function of loading rate for homotypic E1-5 (green symbols) or heteromeric E1-2/E1-5 bond rupture (orange symbols). The different symbols represent the maxima identified in the multimodal distribution of rupture force obtained for a given loading rate. For the homotypic E1-5 bond we determined xu  =  1.1 nm and koff  =  1.2 × 10−4 s−1 (green circles); xu  =  2.3 nm and koff  =  1.4 × 10−5 s−1 (green triangles). For the heteromeric E1-5/E1-2 bond we determined xu  =  4.5 nm and koff  =  5.9 × 10−7 s−1 (yellow triangles). The violet stars indicate data taken from [41].