Conceptual model representing the potential direct and indirect ways through which pond management can affect aquatic communities.

Management may determine fish community characteristics (1), which may affect other organism groups directly through the associated predation regime (2a) or indirectly via an alteration of the pond environment (2b+3). Management may also affect aquatic communities by altering local environmental pond conditions (4+3). In addition, management can also determine the pond drainage regime (5), which in its turn may have direct effects on aquatic communities (6a), or indirect effects through its impact on the fish community (6b+2a or 6b+2b+3) or the pond environment (6c+3). Management may also have unique effects independently of fish, drainage regime and the measured environmental variables (7).