Chronic hepatocyte injury or DAMP administration facilitates <i>S. mansoni</i> development in RAG<sup>−/−</sup> mice.

<p>Groups of RAG<sup>−/−</sup> mice were infected with <i>S. mansoni</i> and treated throughout pre-patent infection with the indicated hepatotoxins or inflammatory stimuli, as described in <a href="http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003708#s4" target="_blank">Materials and Methods</a>. Parasites were perfused from the portal tract and livers removed for egg enumeration at 6 weeks p.i. (A) Length of male worms recovered from RAG<sup>−/−</sup> mice chronically treated with D-(+)-galactosamine hydrochloride (GalN). (B) Length of male worms recovered from RAG<sup>−/−</sup> mice chronically treated with acetaminophen (AAP). (C and E) Length of male worms and (D and F) liver egg burdens from RAG<sup>−/−</sup> mice chronically treated with monosodium urate (MSU; C and D) or alum (E and F). Horizontal bars represent mean values for each experimental group. Groups of 4 to 5 mice were used for each experimental condition. <i>P</i> values for worm lengths determined using student's T-test with Welch's correction. <i>P</i> values for egg production determined using the Mann Whitney test. Data shown for the MSU experiment are pooled from two independent experiments. Dashed lines in A, B, C, and E indicate the average length of male <i>S. mansoni</i> worms recovered from wild type mice at day 42 post infection (3.9 mm).</p>

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