Cationic peptide exposure in concert with PEF application resulted in PI uptake signatures that were indicative of immediate and irreversible membrane disruption at lower PEF intensities.

<p><b><i>A</i></b>: Percent of cells exhibiting particular PI uptake signatures as a function of cationic peptide concentration from 0 to 1 kV/cm, highlighting the general absence of the immediate IEP signature. <b><i>B</i></b>: Representative PI uptake curves at 0.7–1.0 kV/cm showing that peptide-exposed cells exhibited delayed, but not immediate IEP signatures (top) and that non-peptide-exposed cells exclusively exhibited the NEP signature (bottom). <b><i>C</i></b>: Percent of cells exhibiting particular PI uptake signatures as a function of cationic peptide concentration from 1 to 2 kV/cm, highlighting the occurrence of the immediate IEP signature when using 50 to 250 μg/ml of cationic peptide. <b><i>D</i></b>: Representative PI uptake curves at 1.0–1.3 kV/cm showing that peptide-exposed cells exhibited both IEP signatures (top) and that non-peptide-exposed cells exclusively exhibited the NEP signature (bottom). <b><i>E</i></b> and <b><i>F</i></b>: Percent of cells exhibiting particular PI uptake signatures as a function of cationic peptide concentration at the indicated ranges in PEF intensities. In <b><i>A</i></b>, <b><i>C</i></b>, <b><i>E</i></b>, and <b><i>F</i></b>, data accounts for experiments that involved the use of 944 cells in 297 individual experiments. *, **, and *** represent statistically significant differences with <i>p</i> values of <0.05, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively (N = 5–29).</p>