Arabidopsis mutants used in this study.

a<p>They indicate signaling sectors mediating signals of Callose, callose deposition; ET, ethylene; JA, jasmonic acid; MPK3/6, MAP kinases 3/6; Misc., miscellaneous function; NO, nitric oxide; R gene, resistance gene; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SA, salicylic acid; EMT, early MAMP-triggered.</p>