A timeline summarizing the experimental protocol.

<p>The microcuvette was treated with an adhesion peptide so that cells would settle into the microchannel and remain immobilized during experimentation. Cells and PI were added to the microcuvette 300 seconds prior to PEF exposure and allowed to settle into the microchannel. If peptides were used, at 60 seconds before PEF exposure, they were added at twice their desired concentration so that, when combined with the cell/PI mixture in a 1∶1 ratio, they would dilute into the desired experimental concentration. Also at 60 seconds prior to PEF exposure, fluorescence imaging of the cells began (1 image every 10 seconds). At time 0, a PEF was administered and cells were imaged for 1400 seconds.</p>