ViscumTT synergistically activates caspases in Ewing sarcoma cells lines above the levels activated by viscum alone.

A. TC-71 and MHH-ES-1 cells treated 24h with either viscum, TT or viscumTT. CASP9, CASP8, CASP3 activation was measured using FITC-LEHD-FMK, FITC-IETD-FMK and FITC-DEVD-FMK staining followed by flow cytometry. Bars represent mean activation (±SD, error bars) in treatment groups from 3 independent experiments relative to untreated control cultures. A synergist effect of the combined viscumTT extracts was calculated by Webb´s fractional product (*Fp > 1). B. TC-71 cells were treated with viscum, TT and viscumTT for 24h with or without 40μM Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor), then apoptotic cells were detected using annexin V/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Bars represent the mean (±SD, error bars) of 3 independent experiments. Results are expressed as percentages of the untreated control cultures. Mistletoe lectin (ML) and oleanolic acid (OA) concentrations were used as a measure of viscum and TT active agent extract concentration, respectively.