Vacuolar Glyphosate-Sequestration Correlates with Glyphosate Resistance in Ryegrass (Lolium spp.) from Australia, South America, and Europe: A <sup>31</sup>P NMR Investigation

Lolium spp., ryegrass, variants from Australia, Brazil, Chile, and Italy showing differing levels of glyphosate resistance were examined by <sup>31</sup>P NMR. Extents of glyphosate (i) resistance (LD<sub>50</sub>), (ii) inhibition of 5-enopyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity (IC<sub>50</sub>), and (iii) translocation were quantified for glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-sensitive (GS) Lolium multiflorum Lam. variants from Chile and Brazil. For comparison, LD<sub>50</sub> and IC<sub>50</sub> data for Lolium rigidum Gaudin variants from Italy were also analyzed. All variants showed similar cellular uptake of glyphosate by <sup>31</sup>P NMR. All GR variants showed glyphosate sequestration within the cell vacuole, whereas there was minimal or no vacuole sequestration in the GS variants. The extent of vacuole sequestration correlated qualitatively with the level of resistance. Previous <sup>31</sup>P NMR studies of horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist) revealed that glyphosate sequestration imparted glyphosate resistance. Data presented herein suggest that glyphosate vacuolar sequestration is strongly contributing, if not the major contributing, resistance mechanism in ryegrass as well.