V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>: A 2D van der Waals Oxide with Strong In-Plane Electrical and Optical Anisotropy

V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> with a layered van der Waals (vdW) structure has been widely studied because of the material’s potential in applications such as battery electrodes. In this work, microelectronic devices were fabricated to study the electrical and optical properties of mechanically exfoliated multilayered V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> flakes. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the crystal structure axes of the nanoflakes and revealed that the intensities of the Raman modes depend strongly on the relative orientation between the crystal axes and the polarization directions of incident/scattered light. Angular dependence of four-probe resistance measured in the van der Pauw (vdP) configuration revealed an in-plane anisotropic resistance ratio of ∼100 between the <i>a</i> and <i>b</i> crystal axes, the largest in-plane transport anisotropy effect experimentally reported for two-dimensional (2D) materials to date. This very large resistance anisotropic ratio is explained by the nonuniform current flow in the vdP measurement and an intrinsic mobility anisotropy ratio of 10 between the <i>a</i> and <i>b</i> crystal axes. Room-temperature electron Hall mobility up to 7 cm<sup>2</sup>/(V s) along the high-mobility direction was obtained. This work demonstrates V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> as a layered 2D vdW oxide material with strongly anisotropic optical and electronic properties for novel applications.