Ureteral orifice involvement by urothelial carcinoma: long term oncologic and functional outcomes

<div><p>ABSTRACT Purpose: Bladder cancer (BC) may involve the ureteral orifice, and the resection of the orifice has oncological and functional consequences such as development of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), vesicoureteral reflux or ureteral stenosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the oncological and functional outcomes of the ureteral orifice resection in BC patients and determine the predictive factors for UTUC development. Materials and Methods: A total of 1359 patients diagnosed with BC, between 1992 and 2012, were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were grouped with respect to orifice resection and compared for development of UTUC, survival and functional outcomes. Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of UTUC development. Results: Ureteral orifice involvement was detected in 138 (10.2%) patients. The rate of synchronous (10.1% vs. 0.7%, p=0.0001) and metachronous (5.3% vs. 0.9%, p=0.0001) UTUC development was found to be higher in patients with ureteral orifice involvement. Orifice involvement and tumor stage were found to be associated with development of UTUC in the regression analysis. Overall (p=0.963) and cancer specific survival rates (p=0.629) were found to be similar. Hydronephrosis was also significantly higher in patients with orifice involved BC, due to the orifice obstruction caused by the tumor (33.3% vs. 13.9%, p<0.05). Conclusions: BC with ureteral orifice involvement has significantly increased the risk of having synchronous or metachronous UTUC. However, orifice involvement was not found to be associated with survival outcomes. Development of stricture due to resection is a very rare complication.</p></div>