Urban Stream Vulnerability Toward PAHs and <i>n</i>-Alkanes and Their Source Identification

<p>Monjolinho River is an important water body located in the central urban region of São Paulo State in southeast Brazil. The present work reports a 4-year study related to spatio-temporal distribution and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and <i>n</i>-alkanes in surface water and sediment samples of Monjolinho River. A total of 25 sampling campaigns for water, and 10 sampling campaigns for sediment collection, were performed from 2011 to 2014. In sediment samples, total PAHs were found in the range of 2.25 µg kg<sup>−1</sup>–26,253.87 µg kg<sup>−1</sup>, while <i>n</i>-alkane concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 165.64 µg kg<sup>−1</sup>. Total PAHs' concentration in surface water was in the range of 0.17–1,348.35 ng L<sup>−1</sup>, while <i>n</i>-alkanes were detected in the range of 6.17–316.15 µg L<sup>−1</sup>. Principal component analysis was used as a statistical tool for summarizing and interpreting a huge quantity of data. It was observed that concentrations of contaminants increased along the river course in urban zone. Distribution indexes were calculated to identify possible sources of carbon pool that pointed towards petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic sources. The overall concentrations of PAHs and <i>n</i>-alkanes were low compared to many previous studies done elsewhere and were mostly below the threshold effects level except in very few occasional cases, while probable effect level was violated in 1 sample during 4 years. Although adverse impacts are unexpected due to overall low contaminant concentrations, unexpected industrial, and sewage discharges make it risky for safer use as a drinking water resource, especially in dry conditions.</p>